INDEPENDENCE STANDARDS

An Independent Director is one whom the Board affirmatively determines has no material relationship with the Company (either directly or as a partner, shareholder or officer of an organization that has a relationship with the Company). The Board of Directors has adopted the following categorical standards to assist it in the determination of each Director’s independence. The Board of Directors will determine the independence of any Director having a relationship with the Company that is not covered by these standards and the Company will disclose such determinations in its annual proxy statements or otherwise at least annually.

A Director will be presumed to be independent for purposes of membership on the Board of Directors and its Committees if the Director:

  1. Has not been an employee of the Company for at least three years, other than in his or her capacity as a former interim Chairman or interim Chief Executive Officer;
  2. Has not, during the last three years, been affiliated with or employed by a present or former internal or external auditor of the Company or of any affiliate of the Company;
  3. Has not, during the last three years, been employed as an executive officer by a company for which an executive officer of the Company concurrently served as a member of such company’s compensation committee;
  4. Has no immediate family members (i.e., spouse, parents, children, siblings, mothers and fathers-in-law, sons and daughters-in-law, brothers and sisters-in-law and anyone (other than employees) who shares the Director’s home) who did not satisfy the foregoing criteria during the last three years; provided, however, that with respect to the employment criteria, such Director’s immediate family member may have (i) been affiliated with or employed by a present or former internal or external auditor of the Company or of any affiliate of the Company other than in a professional capacity and (ii) served as an employee but not as an executive officer of the Company during such period;
  5. Has not received, and has no immediate family member who has received, during the last three years, more than $100,000 in any year in direct compensation from the Company (other than in his or her capacity as a member of the Board of Directors or any committee of the Board, compensation for his or her service as interim Chairman or Chief Executive Officer, or pension or other deferred compensation for prior service, so long as such compensation is not contingent in any way on continued service); provided, however, that compensation to such Director’s immediate family member as a non-executive employee shall not be considered in determining independence;
  6. Has not been an executive officer or an employee, and has no immediate family member who has been an executive officer, of a company that made payments to, or received payments from, the Company for property or services in any of the last three years in an amount that in any single fiscal year, exceeds the greater of $1 million, or 2% of such other company’s consolidated gross revenues;
  7. Has not been an executive officer or an employee and has no immediate family member who has been an executive officer, of a company to which the Company was indebted at any time during the last three years in an aggregate amount in excess of 5% of the Company’s total assets;
  8. Does not serve, and has no immediate family member who has served, during the last three years as an executive officer or general partner of an entity that has received an investment from the Company or any of its subsidiaries, unless such investment is less than $1 million or 2% of such entity’s total invested capital, whichever is greater, in any of the last three years; and
  9. Has not been, and has no immediate family member who has been, an executive officer of a foundation, university, nonprofit trust or other charitable organization, for which the Company and its respective trusts or foundations, account or accounted for more than 2% or $1 million, whichever is greater, of such charitable organizations’ consolidated gross revenues, in any of the last three years.

In determining that a Director is independent for purposes of serving on the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors, the Board of Directors will also confirm that the Director:

  1. Has not accepted, directly or indirectly, any consulting, advisory or other compensatory fee from the Company or any subsidiary of the Company (other than in his or her capacity as a member of the Board of Directors or any committee of the Board, or pension or other deferred compensation for prior service), so long as such compensation is not contingent in any way on continued service; and
  2. Is not a person “affiliated” with the Company or any subsidiary of the Company, as such term is defined by the Securities and Exchange Commission.